Pathology of Crohn’s disease: Symptoms, duration, severity


Crohn’s disease is a chronic disease that causes inflammation of the digestive tract. The type of Crohn’s disease depends on where it is inflamed in the gastrointestinal tract. Pathology is the branch of medical science that studies and diagnoses disease based on the examination of body tissues and fluids. He examines the causes and effects, as technology has advanced the molecular background of this disease.

Crohn’s disease is a type of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). IBD affects approximately 1.3% of adults in the United States.

Crohn’s disease causes inflammation and irritation of the intestine, affecting the entire thickness of the intestinal lining. This most of the time affects the small intestine and the beginning of the large intestine and may have areas of jump lesions that are not affected. However, it can also affect any part of the digestive tract from the mouth to the anus.

Doctors don’t know exactly what causes Crohn’s disease. However, they believe it is an autoimmune disease that can occur Due to a combination of hereditary, genetic and environmental factors. Diet and stress can make the disease worse, but they do not cause it.

In this article, we discuss the pathology of Crohn’s disease and the differences between the different types of the disease.

When discussing pathology, doctors give a “rough” description and a “microscopic” description. The rough description describes aspects of the disease that are visible without a microscope.

In Crohn’s disease, doctors may notice the following pathology:

Raw description. The inflammation causes the outer wall of the intestinal wall to thicken as well as the inner wall. These changes result in a less functional, non-conforming, and more rigid gut.
Microscopic description. The inner lining is damaged due to the inflammation, and the lining may have non-caseous granulomas and inflammation of the glands, called cryptitis.

Symptoms of Crohn’s disease may vary depending on the part of the intestine affected, but may understand:

Extra-intestinal symptoms

Sometimes people with Crohn’s disease may have symptoms outside of the gastrointestinal tract. These may include:

Different types of Crohn’s disease affect different parts of the intestine. They may include:


Ileocolitis is the The most common form of Crohn’s disease, affecting approximately 40% of people with the condition. It affects the end of the small intestine, called the terminal ileum, and the large intestine, called the colon.

Ileocolitis causes inflammation in these areas, which can lead to the development of a number of symptoms.


Ileitis is similar to ileocolitis, but it only affects the ileum, which is the last part of the small intestine.

In more severe cases, a person may experience complications. These can include fistulas or abscesses.

A fistula is formed when inflammation causes sores or ulcers to develop. These sores or ulcers can then spread through the intestinal wall, which can create a tunnel that drains the pus from the infected area. This causes the development of a passage between two organs or vessels which usually do not connect.

Gastroduodenal Crohn’s disease

Gastroduodenal Crohn’s disease causes inflammation in a person’s stomach and early in their small intestine, called the duodenum.

It is a rare form of Crohn’s disease, a study indicating that it occurs in 0.5 to 4% people with Crohn’s disease.

The study adds that inflammation isolated only in the stomach and duodenum, which is located just below the stomach, accounts for only 0.07% of all gastrointestinal Crohn’s disease.

Although it is rare, a person can experience this type alongside other forms of Crohn’s disease.


Jejunoileitis is a type of Crohn’s disease that causes patchy areas of inflammation in the upper half of a person’s small intestine. This area is called the jejunum. Children and youth can experience more complications in this part of the intestine than adults with the disease.

Jejunoileitis is a relatively rare form of Crohn’s disease.

Crohn’s colitis

Crohn’s colitis is a type of Crohn’s disease that alone affects the colon. It causes inflammation of the colon, which causes a number of symptoms.

Skin lesions and joint pain are more common in this type of Crohn’s disease than in any other type.

Oral crohn

Sometimes Crohn’s disease can affect the mouth. It is rare, but more common in children and youth than in adults.

This type of Crohn’s disease can cause mouth fissures and swelling of the lips. It can occur with other types of Crohn’s disease.

People with other types of Crohn’s disease can also get canker sores. This may be because they are deficient in the following nutrients:

Learn more about how Crohn’s disease can cause canker sores here.

perianal Crohn’s disease

Crohn’s disease can affect the skin near the anus. This may occur on their own or alongside inflammation in other parts of the body.

A person whose Crohn’s disease affects the perianal area may notice:

Crohn’s disease sometimes begins with mild symptoms that may gradually worsen over time due to damage in the gut. However, gravity can come and go in waves, known as flares.

The earlier a person is diagnosed and begins treatment, the more likely they are to reduce their risk of developing more serious symptoms.

If a person has only mild to moderate symptoms, they may be able to avoid complications. They may also be able to move, eat and drink normally, as the disease does not have a significant impact on their quality of life.

More severe symptoms of Crohn’s disease can be debilitating and have a big impact on a person’s quality of life. This can include constant pain or discomfort and a higher risk of complications such as internal bleeding, perforation of the gastrointestinal tract, and some types of bowel cancer.


Serious symptoms or complications may understand:

  • Constraints. A narrow section of the intestine can form due to scar tissue from Crohn’s disease. Symptoms of strictures can include severe abdominal cramps, nausea, vomiting, and constipation. A doctor can treat strictures with medication or surgery.
  • Perforations. This rare but serious complication means that a hole has formed in the intestine. It can cause severe abdominal pain, fever, nausea and vomiting.
  • Fistulas. Having a fistula means that a thin passage has formed between the intestine and the skin or another organ. They can affect the loops of the intestine, bladder, vagina and perianal skin.
  • Malabsorption. The body may not properly absorb nutrients, which can lead to malnutrition.
  • Cancer. People with Crohn’s disease may have a higher risk cancer, for example adenocarcinoma of the ileum.

Learn more about the more serious possible complications of Crohn’s disease here.

Crohn’s disease is a chronic disease, which means that it can affect a person throughout their life. Treatment can reduce symptoms, but there are no cure.

Symptoms of Crohn’s disease often appear in flares. Between these flare-ups, a person may experience periods without any symptoms. This is called remission.

Some people may experience long periods of remission that can last for several years. However, there are usually recurrences of the disease at some point.

It is not possible for a person to predict the length of their periods of remission.

Learn more about Crohn’s flares here.

Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis are two types of IBD.

Crohn’s disease can affect any part of a person’s digestive tract. This includes the esophagus, stomach, small intestine, and large intestine. However, only ulcerative colitis affects the colon.

Crohn’s disease also affects the entire thickness of the intestinal wall, while ulcerative colitis tends to affect only the top layer.

Finally, if a person has Crohn’s disease, their colon may have healthy sections between the inflamed areas. Whereas a person with ulcerative colitis tends to have continuous inflammation of the colon.

Find out more about the differences between Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis.

Common treatments for Crohn’s disease include:

  • Medications. Medicines for Crohn’s disease understand immunosuppressive drugs, steroids and biologicals.
  • Surgery. In more severe cases and when medications do not work, a person may require surgery. This may include the removal of diseased sections of the gastrointestinal tract. About two thirds to three quarters of people with Crohn’s disease will need surgery at some point in their lives.
  • Dietary changes. A health care professional may also advise a person to change their diet. This can include avoiding foods that trigger symptoms, replacing nutrients lost during diarrhea, and making sure they maintain good nutrition.
  • Behavior changes. A person may want to quit smoking because this can make the symptoms of Crohn’s disease worse. They may also wish to try relaxation practices such as meditation, mindfulness, or yoga. Mental health therapy and support can also be effective.

Learn more about Crohn’s disease and diet here.

Crohn’s disease is a form of inflammatory bowel disease. It causes inflammation in any part of a person’s digestive tract. Common symptoms of Crohn’s disease include diarrhea, stomach cramps, abdominal pain, weight loss, and fatigue.

There are several types of Crohn’s disease, all of which affect different areas of the digestive tract. Each type also causes a variety of different symptoms to develop.

Types of Crohn’s disease include ileocolitis, ileitis, gastroduodenal Crohn’s disease, jejunoileitis, and Crohn’s colitis.

A person may receive treatment in the form of medication or surgery, and doctors may also suggest that they change their diet or lifestyle to relieve symptoms.

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